First of all, raw materials should be lignin-containing biomass materials. Next, we talk about charcoal, carbonized raw materials, fuelwood, forest harvesting residues, wood removed during forest tending, and residues of wood processing plants. For example, wood chips can be carbonized. In addition to the wood chips are granular, it needs to be carbonized by a special carbonization furnace. The other raw materials are mostly wood segments, which are suitable for most carbonization furnaces or charcoal kiln carbonization materials.
The carbonized raw material tree of carbonization furnace can be divided into three categories: the first type is hard hardwood, such as Cyclobalanopsis, Malachite, Bitter Tree, Eucalyptus, etc. The second type is soft broadleaf, such as poplar, willow, alfalfa. The tree is the third type of coniferous material, such as Pinus massoniana, South Asian pine, and Pinus elliottii. To produce high-quality charcoal, suitable for industrial sectors such as metallurgical industry and carbon disulfide industry, carbonized raw materials should be hard hardwood, and softwood is commonly used to produce pine charcoal for the production of activated carbon.
The carbonized material is preferable of uniform size and generally requires a diameter of not more than 10 cm. If the diameter is too large, it should be cleaved and pulverized using a pulverizer. The length of the carbonized material is determined by the height of the carbonization furnace or the carbon kiln. If the large material does not open, the thermal conductivity of the wood is poor, and the gas mixture generated during the carbonization is passed from the inside to the outside of the wood, and the path required to pass is long carbonization. Time is also long. Will cause the mechanical strength of the wood to drop.
The charcoal fuelwood is mostly sprouted, so it is best to harvest in autumn and winter. At this time, the trees are in the dormant stage, the sap stops flowing, the roots store the material, and are not damaged, which is good for the germination renewal in the coming year; The humidity is small, the moisture content of the wood is low, the fuelwood that is cut is easy to dry, the carbonization time can be shortened, the fuel consumption is reduced, and the produced charcoal has fewer cracks and high quality.
In addition, the wood of decaying wood and deadwood is not suitable for carbonization. Because the charred wood is charred, the charcoal is loose, brittle and easy to self-ignite, which greatly reduces the quality of charcoal.